Porous skin: causes, symptoms, treatment
Porous skin is a feature of oily or combination skin, characterized by the expansion of the openings of the excretory ducts of the sebaceous glands. Porous skin of the face looks rough, looks like an orange or lemon peel. Typical problems of porous skin are oily shine, grayish color, comedones, acne. In addition to daily home care, with a porous skin, a dermatocosmetologist may recommend a salon therapy: facial cleansing, chemical peels, thinning masks, microdermabrasion, cryomassage, hardware procedures, mesotherapy. To exclude the pathology of internal organs, it is advisable to consult a gastroenterologist and an endocrinologist.
Porous skin - problematic skin with dilated sebaceous glands (pores). Enlarged pores on the face - a common skin defect that occurs among owners of oily or combination skin. Both women and men can face this cosmetic problem. Usually, skin becomes porous during adolescence, and over the years, this deficiency is further aggravated and made more obvious. Enlarged pores are usually localized on the nose, cheeks, chin and give the skin an uneven and unhealthy appearance. In cosmetology and dermatology, the problems of porous skin can be successfully solved with the help of a complex of modern injection and hardware techniques.
Causes of Porous Skin
The sebaceous glands are located on the surface of almost the entire skin integument (except for the palms and soles); however, their greatest concentration is observed on the face (in the forehead, nose, cheeks, chin), scalp, upper back and chest. The sebaceous gland consists of the secretory section and the excretory duct. Functionally, the activity of the sebaceous glands is reduced to the formation and release of sebum (sebum). The formation of sebum occurs in cells-sebocytes, which in the process of maturation accumulate a secret. At the end of the development cycle, dead cells saturated with fat are excreted through the excretory ducts to the surface of the skin. During the day, the sebaceous glands secrete about 20 g of sebum. The secret of the sebaceous glands is a mixture of water and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, esters of fatty acids and alcohols, squalene, etc.).
The activity of the sebaceous glands is regulated mainly by adrenal steroids and sex hormones (androgens, which increase sebum production, and estrogens, which reduce sebum formation). The peak of the functional activity of the sebaceous glands occurs at a transitional age and lasts up to about 25 years. Usually, it is adolescents who first encounter porous skin: excessive sebum secretion leads to its accumulation in the excretory ducts of the glands and the expansion of the orifices. With age, sebum production decreases, which makes mature skin more dry.
In addition, the presence of porous skin is due to genetic factors: if the parents have skin with large pores, then most likely the child will also face a similar problem in the future. Porous skin is often found in individuals suffering from endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, chronic constipation, and anemia. Enlarged pores are usually observed with seborrhea.
Pollution and expansion of the pores are promoted by excessive use of decorative cosmetics, improper care of problem skin, dustiness and gas pollution, excessive enthusiasm for tanning. Attempts to remove inflammatory elements on the skin by extrusion can also lead to persistent expansion of the pores: in this case, inept manipulation is accompanied by stretching and deformation of the orifices of the excretory ducts of the sebaceous glands. Since sebaceous excretion can increase when certain foods are consumed (chocolate, coffee, spices, sweets, alcohol), people with unhealthy eating habits often face the problem of porous skin.
Characteristics of porous skin
The basis of the problems of porous skin are three processes starting with the prefix "hyper": hyperplasia of sebocyte cells, hyperproduction of sebum and follicular hyperkeratosis (thickening of the orifices of the sebaceous glands).
Porous skin has the main disadvantages of oily and combination skin. Without proper care, it looks coarse and loose; its separate areas seem to be punctured by a needle and resemble an orange or lemon peel. Enlarged pores in the form of funnel-shaped depressions (“volcano craters”) are localized mainly in the so-called seborrheic zones — the forehead, nose, chin and cheek areas. The porous skin has an uneven texture, a dull grayish shade, shiny appearance; prone to the formation of sebaceous plugs, comedones, the development of various kinds of inflammatory eruptions, acne, post-acne.
The loss of elasticity of the skin leads to an increase in the pores in breadth, so on the skin with signs of photoaging, atonic and loose skin, the already large pores appear visually larger. Since sebum in men has a thicker consistency, their pores are wider than in women. Large pores that stand out on the face look unaesthetic, especially if they are clogged with grease plugs and mud. Makeup does not fit well on a porous skin, often emphasizing its large-pore relief.
Features of care for porous skin
Porous skin is rather "capricious" and requires special attention, both from the side of its owner and from the specialist who provides professional care. Before proceeding to the selection and implementation of care procedures, the dermatocosmetologist conducts a thorough examination and diagnosis of the skin condition: assesses its moisture, oiliness, elasticity, determines the pH level, and identifies the existing dermatological problems. In some cases, additional consultations (endocrinologist, gastroenterologist) and research (ultrasound of the abdominal organs, general and biochemical analysis of blood, etc.) may be required.
Daily self-care of porous skin of the face involves its cleansing, toning and moisturizing with the use of cosmetics in accordance with the type of skin. When caring for porous skin should opt for the use of fat creams; excess makeup; too aggressive washing with hot water and soap, degreasing with alcohol solutions. Oily and comedogenic cosmetics clog pores, contributing to the development of inflammatory processes and further expansion of the orifices of the sebaceous glands. High-temperature water and alcohol-containing lotions destroy the lipid membrane and dry the skin; in response, the sebaceous glands react with an even greater increase in sebum secretion.
Normalization of sebaceous excretions, reduction of pores and toning of the skin is promoted by washing with warm or cool water, wiping the face with cosmetic ice, and the use of tonic-narrowing pores. To exfoliate the layer of keratinized epithelium, cleanse the pores of excess sebum and dirt, 1-2 times a week, scrub peels and peels-gommazhi are used; cleaning strips are used. Cosmetic masks made of white clay have an excellent adsorbing and porosuzhivayuschim effect. The complex of daily care arrangements must end with a moisturizing cream.
To combat the enlarged pores in aesthetic cosmetology, various treatment, hardware, and injection procedures have been proposed, which are often combined with each other in special programs for the care of porous facial skin. The basic measure in the care of porous skin is its cleansing, therefore the protocol of any procedure includes face cleansing (manual, ultrasound, chemical, atraumatic, vacuum, etc.). For porous skin, chemical peelings can be recommended: enzyme, glycolic, ABR, TCA. They help to remove the cornified epidermis, leveling the skin relief.
Intensive renewal of the epidermis, shrinking of the pores, elimination of small scars and post-acne allows for laser skin resurfacing. Less traumatic and more delicate procedures with the same effect are microdermabrasion and gas-liquid peeling. The various protocols for the care of porous skin can include facial massage (by Jacquet, cryomassage), darsonvalization, phonophoresis, alginate masks. Excellent results with a porous skin are provided by mesotherapy with special, individually selected cocktails. With regular home and salon care for porous skin, pores gradually narrow and become almost invisible.
Acne rosacea is a chronic dermatosis, based on the lesion of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles and capillaries of the skin of the face. The course of the disease is accompanied by persistent erythema, the appearance of telangiectasias, red nodules, transforming into pustules. Thickening of the skin can lead to the development of rhinophyma, blepharophyma, gnatophyma, and other cosmetic defects. Diagnosis includes consulting a dermatologist, bacteriological seeding of pustules, a study not demodecosis. Treatment of rosacea involves complex local (lotions, antibacterial creams) and general treatment (antibiotics, vitamin therapy, immunomodulators).
Rosacea (rosacea) is a chronic pathology of the sebaceous glands, in the pathogenesis of which angiopathy, various neuroendocrine pathologies and chronic diseases of the digestive tract take an important place. Of the women who applied to the dermatologist and dermatotokosmetologu. in the age group from 30 to 50 years, in about 5% of cases, rosacea of various forms and degrees of severity are diagnosed.
In the pathogenesis of pink acne, skin type and race are important. Thus, people of Celtic origin, the Irish and the representatives of the northern peoples are most susceptible to the disease. According to official data, the incidence of rosacea among these contingents reaches 40% of the total population. While representatives of the Negroid race and Asians almost do not suffer from pink acne, despite excessive insolation. Blonde women with photosensitivity types I and II almost always suffer from some form of rosacea.
Causes of rosacea
The development of pink acne provokes excessive overheating and overcooling of the skin, insolation, including exposure to ultraviolet radiation in tanning beds, stressful situations, long-term local use of glucocorticosteroids. Improper care of the skin with the use of hard scrubs and aggressive chemicals, such as chemical peeling at home, leads to a persistent expansion of the vascular network, which in itself is a cosmetic problem and in the future almost always ends with pink acne.
The abuse of alcohol, hot drinks, spicy and spicy foods, smoking and drinking fizzy provoke acne rosacea, and with an established diagnosis they complicate the course of diseases. A history of allergic reactions with skin manifestations (allergic contact dermatitis) is not the last in the pathogenesis of rosacea.
The presence of demodex mites in the follicles reinforces the symptoms of rosacea, but demodex mites are not the cause, as previously thought, as a result of which incorrect therapy was prescribed, which only complicated the course of the disease. The main cause of rosacea and pronounced pathogenesis in their development is not, but the combination of several predisposing factors increases the likelihood of their occurrence. In the pathogenesis of rosacea, pathogenic microflora is not a provoking factor, although sometimes the disease is complicated by gram-negative pyoderma.
Clinical manifestations of rosacea
The prodromal period of development of the disease is characterized by sharp and sudden flushes to the skin of the face with a sensation of heat. Tides arise in response to stimuli that are insignificant for the majority of people; small doses of alcohol cause persistent expansion of the vascular network on the face. At the same time, the blush at the initial stage of rosacea is often bright and has a clear border with healthy skin, sometimes such blush resembles flames or rose petals.
In the first stage, persistent erythema of the skin of the face is observed, which already occurs without provocative factors and telangiectasia, the skin becomes oily and, due to the use of aggressive cosmetics aimed at reducing the fat, the hydro-exchange is disturbed, seborrhea joins, and, against the background of dehydrated, flaky skin, there is an excess sebum removal. In the second stage of development of rosacea, papules and small pustules are observed in addition to persistent redness and telangiectasia.
Rosacea - stage of persistent hyperemia In the third stage, rosacea is clinically manifested in the form of a pronounced saturated erythema, a dense network of telangiectasias, especially in the area of the wings of the nose and in the chin, papules and pustules. Depending on the skin type, knots and extensive dense infiltrates can form in the central part of the face.
The course of the disease is undulating, there are periods of remission and periods of exacerbations, but over time, the duration of remissions is reduced, and exacerbations of rosacea are becoming more frequent, and each relapse surpasses the previous one in its clinical picture. And as a result of remission, it is no longer observed, pathogenic microflora is joining, or the infiltrative stage of rosacea comes in, when the entire skin of the face is thickened, edematous and inflamed.
Diagnosis of rosacea
The diagnosis is made by a dermatologist on the basis of a visual examination, an important diagnostic feature is the absence of comedones and black spots on the face. Additional studies are assigned for differential diagnosis; seeding and bacteriological examination of the contents of pustules eliminates staph infection and other pyoderma.
Microscopic examination of demodex allows you to adjust the tactics of treatment of rosacea, complicated by demodicosis.
The first stages of rosacea remain unnoticed, as cosmetic defects are easily masked by decorative cosmetics, but the treatment at this stage is most effective. Drugs that strengthen the vascular wall are prescribed, sedative therapy with herbal preparations can reduce the nervous excitability of patients and reduce the adrenaline rush to the blood, thus the vascular network does not expand and the symptoms of rosacea diminish. The intake of vitamins B, A, C, subcutaneous injections of nicotinic acid also strengthen the walls of blood vessels and stabilize the autonomic nervous system.
Washing with chamomile and horse chestnut infusion gives a good local calming effect on pink acne. The presence of demodex mites at these stages of rosacea is not an indication for the treatment of demodicosis, on the contrary, such therapy worsens the condition of patients. Demodecosis passes after the follicles start working in the natural mode and the outflow of sebum decreases.
The second and third stages of rosacea require topical application of gels with antibiotics and metronidazole, they have an anti-inflammatory effect and cool the skin affected by rosacea. If rosacea has not arisen due to the prolonged use of glucocorticosteroid ointments, then short-term topical therapy with topical corticosteroid ointments will quickly remove the infiltrative and inflammatory manifestations of rosacea. After the inflammatory process is arrested, it is necessary to eliminate the main cause of rosacea - an expanded and branched vascular grid. Electrocoagulation, photocoagulation and laser coagulation solves this problem, excessive vessels clot and gradually disappear.
Full recovery from rosacea is impossible to achieve, but with timely combination therapy, almost all patients can achieve stable remission. Moreover, if the treatment is started in the first stages of the disease, then there is no change on the part of the skin; Complicated rosacea can leave behind small scars and scars.
Persons who fall into the risk group for the incidence of rosacea should avoid insolation, overheating and overcooling of the body, be more careful about the work and rest regime. Such sports as mountain skiing, running should be excluded or limited. A rational diet in which dairy products and plant foods are present help to improve the functioning of the intestines, and therefore, reduce the risk of rosacea. Proper care of the skin of the face and the use of creams with a high UV protection factor can help both those who have achieved a stable remission, and those who are at risk for the incidence of pink acne.